Fortunately, I found a solution somewhere in the Internet and thought I might also share the trick to revive iPhone charging again:
- Plug the iPhone to a power source (PC via USB or charger), let it there for 15 minutes and do not worry if there is no indication that the battery is charging.
- Put the side switch of the iPhone to silent mode (the red dot should show).
- Unplug the iPhone form the power source and make sure it is turned off.
- Toggle the side switch of the iPhone four times (normal - silent - normal - silent).
- Press the home and power button (the one on top of the iPhone) simultaneously until the Apple logo appears (should take about 10 seconds).
- Plug the iPhone to a power source and let it fully charge, you can now use again your iPhone.